NEMONYCHIDAE Bedel, 1882
This very local species occurs for a few weeks early in the year when flowers appear on male pine trees.
Around the World
A medium sized family of around 70 species included in 23 genera and 3 subfamilies worldwide. They have sometimes been included within the Curculionidae but the larvae show affinities with the Anthribidae. As in the anthribidae the labrum is separate from the clypeus i.e. not fused, and the maxillary palps are long and protruding. Nemonychids have all the abdominal sternites free whereas in anthribids they are connate, or at least partly fused. Nemonychids also lack the lateral pronotal carinae that are usually present, if sometimes short, in anthribids. Morphologically nemonychids are distinct from curculionids and other weevils by the combination of orthocerous antennae, the distinct labrum, and habitus. The family occurs worldwide although the distribution is rather patchy; across Europe and east through Asia Minor, central Russia and China but not Japan. Eastern Australia, New Zealand and New Guinea. Throughout the Nearctic south to Columbia, Brazil and Chile.15 species included in 5 genera (including 7 species of Cimberis des Gozis, 1881) occur in the (mostly western) U.S.A. 5 species occur in Canada. Of the 3 European species only Cimberis attelaboides (Fabricius, 1787) occurs in the U.K. Most species occur on Pine. The adults are seldom seen as they generally occur for only a few weeks to coincide with the host trees producing male flowers. In temperate regions the adults occur early in the year, often while snow still persists, and are almost always found among the flowers where they feed on pollen. Females oviposit in the flowers where the larvae will also feed on pollen, although they have also been recorded feeding on other plant hosts. Mature larvae drop from the flowers to the ground where they pupate in the soil. The pupal stage can be protracted, lasting from a few months to two years. In temperate regions pine is the primary host but elsewhere other gymnosperms are chosen; Araucarinaceae and Podocarpaceae (Australia, New Zealand, South America, Indochina and the Philippines) and some primitive angiosperms e.g. Fagaceae and Ranunculaceae. In general the species are naturally distributed in mountain or boreal regions but with extensive introduction of pines for the timber industry they are now much more widely spread. The family is well represented in both hemispheres with roughly the same number of species in the temperate regions of South America, New Zealand and Australia as in the Holarctic. Several new species have recently been
POLYPHAGA Emery, 1886
CURCULIONOIDEA Latreille, 1802
Cimberis des Gozis, 1881
C. attelaboides (Fabricius, 1787)
found in Panamanian and Venezuelan tropical regions on Podocarpus species (Plum pines.)
The general appearance of the adults is rather distinctive and varies only in detail so that the group is soon recognized. 3.0-5.5mm. Elongate and parallel species, weakly convex and drab; light brown or grey to black. Appendages generally pale. Dorsal surface generally pubescent, recumbent to semi-erect, pale and usually short. Antennae geniculate with a loose and weakly differentiated club. Inserted laterally near the apex of the rostrum. Mandibles with a small tooth inside. Labial palps inserted ventrally near the base of the prementum. Gular sutures separate and well developed. Labrum distinct, not fused with the clypeus and with stiff setae along the front margin. Procoxae continuous, cavities normally closed behind. Elytral epipleura lacking. Hind wings developed. Elytra completely covering abdomen. Visible sternites free. Median lobe with a well developed dorsal plate. Tegmen simple.
Cimberis attelaboides (Fabricius, 1787)
Often included in the genus Rhinomacer Fabricius, 1787. This is the only species of the genus to occur in Europe and the only member of the family to occur in the U.K. In Europe it occurs from Scandinavia to the Mediterranean and southeast to northern Iran. In the U.S.A. from California. In the U.K. it has been recorded throughout England and Wales although records are scattered; southeast England, the midlands, north Wales, Lincolnshire and Cumbria. In Scotland from the Inverness district. There appear to be no island records. Generally in conifer forests and plantations. Typically the species develops in the male flowers of Scots Pine, Pinus sylvestris. The species originally occurred in the northern pine forests but has now become sporadically widespread.
Among the U.K. fauna this distinctive species should not be confused with any other. 3-5.5mm. Elongate and rather parallel-sided. Body dark grey to black, appendages pale. Upper surface randomly punctured, stronger on elytra, and with long, semi-recumbent pubescence. Head transverse and almost as broad as pronotum. Eyes large and protruding, occupying whole side of head, entire, not notched on front margin. Rostrum dilated at base and apex, with strong puncturation. Antennae longer than head and pronotum combined. All segments elongate, including the loose 4-segmented club. Eighth segment dimorphic; broader towards apex in the male. Clypeus distinct. Mandibles with a strong median tooth. Pronotum quadrate or nearly so and without borders. Widest at middle and evenly rounded at sides. Without depressions or fovea. Elytra parallel sided or a little widened towards apex. Without striae. Declivity steep. Male front tibiae curved inwards at apex and with an apical tooth, abdominal sternites with evenly and finely pubescent. Female tibiae straight, abdominal sternites with a median line of pale pubescence.